Native American activists have long fought for justice and equality for Indigenous communities in the United States. One of the most prominent and influential figures in this movement was Vine Deloria Jr. Born in 1933 in Martin South Dakota, Deloria was a member of the Yankton Sioux Tribe, but his father later transferred their membership to the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. He attended reservations schools until he then traveled to Connecticut where he enrolled in Kent School, a private preparatory boarding school where he graduated from in 1951. He also served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1954 to 1956. Vine then went to college and attended Iowa State College, graduating with a degree in general science in 1958. He later earned a theology degree at the Lutheran School of Theology in Rock Island, Illinois. In 1970, he obtained a law degree from the University of Colorado, Boulder. Deloria’s career as an activist and writer began in the 1960s. He became involved in the civil rights movement and worked with the National Congress of American Indians. In 1969, he published his first book, “Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto,” which became a bestseller and established him as a leading voice in the Native American rights movement. In his writing, Deloria argued that the struggles of Native Americans were not just a matter of individual prejudice or discrimination but were rooted in the larger history of colonization and land theft. He advocated for a return to traditional Indigenous values and ways of life and pushed for recognition of tribal sovereignty and self-determination. Deloria’s work had a profound impact on the Native American rights movement. He was a key figure in the occupation of Alcatraz Island in 1969, where activists wished to seek construction of an Indian cultural center, as well as gain attention for justice on Indigenous issues, including recognition of tribal sovereignty. Deloria was an expert witness for the defense team in the Wounded Knee Trials in 1974. He was the first witness to be called by the defense lawyers to provide testimony. An hour after he took to the stand, the judge ordered the Sioux Treaty of 1868 to be admitted. Throughout his life, Deloria remained a passionate advocate for Native American rights. He continued to write and speak out on issues such as tribal sovereignty, cultural preservation, and environmental justice. He passed away in 2005, but his legacy lives on in the ongoing struggle for Indigenous rights and justice. In conclusion, Vine Deloria Jr. was a highly influential Native American activist, writer, and thinker. His work helped to shift the conversation around Native American rights and inspired generations of activists and scholars. His legacy serves as a reminder of the ongoing struggle for Indigenous sovereignty, self-determination, and justice.